Performance Analysis of Driving Ability (P-DRIVE) Online Certification Course
Dr Beth Cheal
M. +61 (0)422 265 330 firstname.lastname@example.org
1. What is P-Drive?
Performance Analysis of Driving Ability (P-Drive) is a standardised observational assessment tool used by occupational therapists to score a driver’s capacity to perform safe and competent manoeuvres. P-Drive was initially developed for an advanced driving simulator lab (Patomella, Tham, & Kottorp, 2006). Later, the items were redesigned for on-road assessment (Patomella, Tham, Johansson, & Kottorp, 2010). The assessment tool was developed using occupational therapy theory (the Model of Human Occupation) and activity analysis. Additionally, Michon’s (1985) psychological theory about decision making on-road was used in the development phase. The items are based on actions taken during driving and are different from those of other assessments that focus on the frequency of errors. For further details about P-Drive’s development and theoretical background, see Patomella et al., 2006. Research has shown promising results for the psychometric properties of data gathered using P-Drive: evidence for internal validity (i.e., unidimensionality of the underlying construct, driving ability), internal reliability and construct validity (Patomella et al., 2010) and interrater reliability (Vaucher et al., 2015). Cut-off scores have been proposed (Patomella & Bundy, 2015; Selander et al., 2011) and have also been determined for Australia and New Zealand (to be published by Dr Patomella & Beth Cheal).
2. Course Aim
The Performance Analysis of Driving Ability (P-Drive) online course provides certification in the application of P-Drive.
3. Prerequisites and Assumed Knowledge
Course attendees must be qualified occupational therapists and have attended post-graduate training to become registered driving assessors in Australia, or have met the requirements to practice in driver assessment and rehabilitation in their own country.
The P-Drive Administration Manual, assessment sheet and published papers (see
‘References’) will be provided prior to commencement of the online modules. Attendees are required to read through the manual and research papers prior to commencing Module A.
5. Learning Outcomes
At the completion of the P-Drive Certification Course attendees will be able to:
• Recognise the importance of using standardised, valid and reliable on-road assessment tools
• Demonstrate the skills necessary to accurately score on-road driving performance using P-Drive
• Apply knowledge regarding the theoretical background to P-Drive development
• Explore the psychometric properties of P-Drive
• Apply understanding of how to standardise the on-road assessment process and route
• Achieve certification as a P-Drive administrator
6. Course Progression & Estimated Time
Following the completion of the online components of the training, attendees are required to perform 10 client on-road or driving simulator assessments, scoring driving performance using P-Drive. Rating is conducted following the assessment, not in the car or simulator at the time of the assessment. Rating takes around 5-10 minutes. Attendees should consult the P-Drive manual when making scoring decisions and use the P-Drive assessment form provided. Attendees will need to generate a total score as per the scoring sheet for each client and enter their results in the excel spreadsheet that will be provided. The 10 reports and spread sheet are submitted via email to email@example.com. Ensure no identifying information is included (e.g., client name, MRN, date of birth or address). Please submit the assessments to Beth as a package once completed, rather than one at a time. Attendees have 12 months to complete and submit the 10 assessments. Feel free to contact Beth if you have any questions or difficulty with the scoring process. The submitted reports and spread sheets will be forwarded to Dr Ann-Helen Patomella, who will check the reports and calibrate therapists. A certificate and registration number will then be issued by Dr Patomella and Institute of Driver Health, certifying attendees to use P-Drive to score on-road performance.
Patomella, A., & Bundy, A. (2015). P-Drive: Implementing an assessment of on-road driving in clinical settings and investigating Its internal and predictive validity. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 69(4), 6904290010p6904290011-6904290018. doi:10.5014/ajot.2015.015131
Patomella, A., Tham, K., Johansson, K., & Kottorp, A. (2010). P-Drive on-road: Internal scale validity and reliability of an assessment of on-road driving performance in people with neurological disorders. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 17(1), 86-93. doi:10.3109/11038120903071776
Patomella, A., Tham, K., & Kottorp, A. (2006). P-Drive: Assessment of driving performance after stroke. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 38, 273-279. doi:10.1080/16501970600632594
Selander, H., Lee, H. C., Johansson, K., & Falkmer, T. (2011). Older drivers: On-road and off-road test results. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43(4), 1348-1354. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2011.02.007
Vaucher, P., Biase, C. D., Lobsiger, E., Margot-Cattin, I., Favrat, B., & Patomella, A. H. (2015). Reliability of P-drive in occupational therapy following a short training session: A promising instrument measuring seniors’ on-road driving competencies. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 78(2), 131-139. doi:10.1177/0308022614562580